Top 7 in immunology
A snapshot of the most highly ranked articles in immunology
1. Immune response feeds parasite
Salmonella is able to outcompete resident gut microbes by deriving energy from the inflammatory immune response that is supposed to combat the pathogen.
S.E. Winter, et al., "Gut inflammation provides a respiratory electron acceptor for Salmonella," Nature, 467:426-9, 2010. Evaluated by Matam Vijay-Kumar and Andrew Gewirtz, Emory Univ; David Alpers, Washington Univ School of Med; Alexei Kurakin and Roya Khosravi-Far, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Cen; Michael Hensel, Univ of Osnabruck; Yvonne Sun and Mary O'Riordan, Univ of Michigan Med School; Wolf-Dietrich Hardt, Swiss Federal Inst of Tech; James Moir, Univ of York; Victor Nizet, Univ of California, San Diego. Free F1000 Evaluation
A dendritic cell
Image: Wikimedia/PLoS Pathogens
2. How Tregs limit inflammation
T-regulatory cells can multiply their numbers by secreting the cytokine interleukin IL-35, which converts the population of T-cells involved in killing (effector T-cells) into regulatory cells that suppress inflammation, providing a new explanation for how inflammation is reeled in after an infection is cleared.
L. W. Collison, et al., "IL-35-mediated induction of a potent regulatory T cell population," Nat Immunol, 2010. Evaluated by Stephen Cobbold, University of Oxford; Stanley Perlman, University of Iowa. Free F1000 Evaluation
3. How to tolerate gut bacteria
B-catenin, a factor best known for its role in cell development, also tips dendritic cells in the intestines toward promoting immune tolerance of beneficial gut bacteria, suppressing the inflammation that these cells would otherwise instigate.
S. Manicassamy et al., "Activation of beta-catenin in dendritic cells regulates immunity versus tolerance in the intestine," Science, 329:849-53, 2010. Evaluated by Arthur Hurwitz, NIH; Caio Fagundes and Mauro Teixeira, Univ Federal De Minas Gerais, Brazil; Kiyoshi Takeda, Osaka Univ, Japan; Jay Berzofsky, Center for Cancer Research, NCI; Barry Rouse, University of Tennessee; Torben Lund, Univ College London, UK. Free F1000 Evaluation
4. Antibody defense inside and out
Antibodies control infection by attaching to virus particles in the blood and marking them for digestion by phagocytic cells. Researchers show that if the infecting virus was first tagged by an antibody in the bloodstream, the antibody can also deactivate it once it enters a cell by activating proteasomal degradation of the virus.
D.L. Mallery et al., "Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21)," PNAS, 107;19985-90, 2010 Evaluated by Lutz Walter, German Primate Center, Germany; David Alpers, Washington Univ School of Med; Nathalie Vigneron and Benoit Van den Eynde, Ludwig Inst for Cancer Res, Belgium; Gijs Versteeg and Adolfo Garcia-Sastre, Mount Sinai School of Med; Diana Koch and Nancy Sawtell, Cincinnati Children's Hosp Med Cen. Free F1000 Evaluation
5. Directed clean-up
Neutrophils are attracted to an inflamed area in part to help clean-up bruised or dead tissue, but they can also contribute to the inflammation and cause additional damage if overstimulated. Researchers found that a hierarchy of signals directs neutrophils through healthy tissue to their target, and help limit collateral damage from these cells..
B. McDonald et al., "Intravascular danger signals guide neutrophils to sites of sterile inflammation," Science, 330:362-6, 2010. Evaluated by William A Muller, Northwestern Univ, Feinberg School of Med; Samantha Wang and Karsten Gronert, Univ of California, Berkeley; Sharon Hyduk and Myron Cybulsky, Toronto Gen Hosp, Canada. Free F1000 Evaluation
6. Immune battle by suicide
Macrophages infected with Salmonella have an unusual way of killing the pathogen -- they initiate cell suicide, releasing the bacteria, along with inflammatory cytokines, into the extracellular matrix where neutrophils and other immune cells attack them.
E.A.Miao et al., "Caspase-1-induced pyroptosis is an innate immune effector mechanism against intracellular bacteria," Nat Immunol, 11:1136-42, 2010. Evaluated by Volker Briken and David Mosser, Univ of Maryland; Jordan Wesolowski and Fabienne Paumet, Jefferson Medical College; Sebastian Winter and Andreas Baumler, Univ of California, Davis; Nobuhiko Kayagaki, Kim Newton and Vishva Dixit, Genentech. Free F1000 Evaluation
7. Allergy gets a new look
The role of basophils, a type of white blood cell, in allergic reactions has recently become an area of controversy: While some recent studies support the old dogma that basophils are key components of allergic reaction, this new study adds to a body of literature that suggests they are not involved at all -- specifically, that dendritic cells -- not basophils -- are critical for allergic inflammation.
A.T. Phythian-Adams, et al., "CD11c depletion severely disrupts Th2 induction and development in vivo," J Exp Med, 207:2089-96, 2010. Evaluated by Marc A Williams, EPA; Booki Min, Cleveland Clinic Foundation; Eric Denkers, Cornell Univ. Free F1000 Evaluation
The F1000 Top 7 is a snapshot of the highest ranked articles from a 30-day period on Faculty of 1000 Immunology, as calculated on January 6, 2011. Faculty Members evaluate and rate the most important papers in their field. To see the latest rankings, search the database, and read daily evaluations, visit http://f1000.com.