sexta-feira, 12 de novembro de 2010

Unesco divulga Ciência & fatos- Brasil vai bem

Em termos gerais Brasil está bem. Os dados abraangem de 2002 a 2008. Em número de cientistas por 1.000.000 de habitantes
India 137
Brasil 657
China 1071
Russia 3304
Inglaterra 4181
Canada 4260
Coréia 4627
Est Unidoa 4663
Singapura 6088

O crescimento de publicações no mundo no período foi de 34,5% (de 733305 publicações em 2002 passou para 986099 em 2008) Estados Unidos , Europa e Japão diminuiram sua paarticipação enquanto pasise como china Brasil India aumentaram. Brasil mais que dobrou sua publica~ção cientifica (26482 em 2008, China 104968, Iran 10894,

Leia na integra o artigo

UNESCO Science Report 2010: Facts and figures
The USA, Europe and Japan are still leading the global research and development (R&D) effort, but emerging countries, especially China, are challenging them. This is one finding of the 2010 UNESCO Science Report, launched in Paris on 10 November, World Science Day.


China plans to raise the GERD/GDP ratio from 1.54% (2008) to 2.5% by 2020.
China plans to recruit 2000 foreigners in the next 5-10 years to work in its laboratories, research institutes, leading enterprises and universities via the Nigeria plans to join the world’s top 20 most powerful economies by 2020 by attaining a GERD/GDP ratio comparable to that of the 20 leading developed economies.
The Republic of Korea plans to become one of seven major powers in S&T by 2012 through creative technological innovation. One of its top priorities is to raise the GERD/GDP ratio to 5% by 2012.
In the USA, the Obama administration announced plans in April 2009 to increase GERD from 2.7% to 3% of GDP.
In 2006, Qatar implemented a five-year plan to increase GERD from 0.33% to 2.8%.
Brazil plans to raise R&D expenditure from 1.07% of GDP in 2007 to 1.5% of GDP in 2010. Another target is to augment the number of scholarships and fellowships available to university students and researchers from 102 000 in 2007 to 170 000 by 2011.

R&D INPUT: trends in gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)

In 2007, the world devoted 1.7% of GDP to GERD, the same percentage as five years earlier.
Between 2002 and 2007, world GERD rose by 45%, from $790.3 billion to $1145.7 billion. Over the same period, world GDP rose by 43%, from $46 272.6 to $66 293.7 (purchasing power parity dollars in constant prices).
The world shares of GDP and GERD all dropped between 2002 and 2007 for the Triad (European Union, Japan, USA).
Driven essentially by China, India and the Republic of Korea, Asia’s world share of GERD rose from 27% to 32% between 2002 and 2007, largely to the detriment of the Triad.
Among the G20, the following countries contributed a larger share of world GERD than world GDP in 2007: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom, USA.
The Arab States devoted nearly ten times more to world GDP than to world GERD in 2007 (3.6% versus 0.4%), a greater imbalance than in 2002 (3.4% versus 0.5%).
Sub-Saharan Africa devoted three times more to world GDP than to world GERD in 2007 (2.2% versus 0.6%). This was a slight improvement over 2002 (2.1% versus 0.5%).
No country in Central Asia devoted more than 0.25% of GDP to GERD in 2007.
China’s world share of GERD leapt from 5.0% in 2002 to 8.9% in 2007, progressing faster than China’s GDP (7.9% to 10.7%).
There is a strong variation within countries in the distribution of R&D. In the USA, for example, 10 of the country’s 50 states performed 59% of GERD in 2005. California alone accounted for approximately one-fifth of the total. In Brazil, 40% of GERD is spent in the Sẵo Paolo region. In South Africa, three out of the country’s nine provinces concentrate four-fifths of GERD: Gauteng Province alone concentrates 51%.
Between 2000 and 2007, business investment in R&D (BERD) grew from 1.77% to 2.65% of GDP in the Republic of Korea, placing it on a par with Japan for this indicator (2.16% to 2.68%). The other countries with the fastest growth in BERD were also in Asia: China’s BERD doubled from 0.54% to 1.08% of GDP; Singapore’s BERD climbed from 1.18% to 1.74% of GDP and India’s BERD rose from 0.14% to 0.37% of GDP. Over the same period, BERD remained stable in Brazil (0.50% in 2007), Germany (1.77%) and France (1.29%) and even declined slightly in the Russian Federation (0.91% to 0.80%) and USA (2.05% to 1.93%).
The increase in business expenditure on R&D in Australia was a tributary of the commodities boom largely driven by China and India, which nurtured mining-related R&D in Australia.
Between 2003 and 2006, the share of basic research in GERD in India rose from 17.8% to 26% and in the Republic of Korea from 17.3% in 2001 to 25.3% in 2007. In China, on the other hand, it dropped between 2000 and 2008 from 5.21% to 4.78% of the total.

R&D INPUT: trends in researchers

In 2007, China, the European Union and the USA each represented about 20% of the world stock of researchers.
Taken together, the Big Five (the Triad made up of the European Union, Japan, USA, plus China and the Russian Federation) represented 35% of the world population in 2007 but 77% of the world’s researchers.
The share of the stock of researchers grew from 30% to 38% in the developing world between 2002 and 2007, with China being responsible for two-thirds of this growth.
In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of researchers rose from 45,000 to 60,000 between 2002 and 2007. Although the sub-continent’s world share remained stable at 0.8%, the density of researchers increased from 67 to 79 per million inhabitants.
In the Arab world, the number of researchers rose from 105,000 to 123,000 between 2002 and 2007. Although the region’s world share dropped slightly from 1.8% to 1.7%, this nevertheless represented an increase in the density of researchers from 355 to 373 per million inhabitants.
If the number of researchers grew almost everywhere, the research pool expanded particularly rapidly in the following countries: Brazil (from 72,000 to 125,000), China (from 810,500 to 1.4 million), the Republic of Korea (142,000 to 222,000) and Turkey (from 24,000 to 50,000).
In the Russian Federation, the number of researchers dropped between 2002 and 2007, from 492,000 to 469,000. Across the wider Commonwealth of Independent States, the trend was also negative.
By 2007, the number of researchers per million inhabitants had attained 657 in Brazil, 1071 in China and 137 in India. In the fourth BRIC country, the Russian Federation, it remained high at 3304, despite the drop in numbers in recent years. Some of the highest ratios were to be found in the United Kingdom (4181), Canada (4260), Republic of Korea (4627), USA (4663) and Singapore (6088).

R&D OUTPUT: trends in publications and patents

Between 2002 and 2008, the number of publications recorded in Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index (SCI) grew by 34.5%, from 733,305 to 986,099. The number more than doubled in Brazil (to 26,482) and China (to 104,968) and even increased fivefold in Iran (to 10,894). The volume of publications came close to doubling in India and the Republic of Korea. Although the number of publications recorded in the SCI grew in all countries in sub-Saharan Africa, only 17 had more than 100 papers indexed in this database in 2008.
In the BRIC countries, Brazil published most in the life sciences in 2008, the Russian Federation in physics, mathematics, Earth and space sciences, India in chemistry and China in physics, chemistry, mathematics, engineering and technology.
China’s main research partners in 2004–2008 were, in descending order, the USA, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Australia, France, Singapore and the Republic of Korea.
The USA still has more scientific articles recorded in the SCI than any other country but its world share fell between 2002 and 2008 from 30.9% to 27.7%. Japan’s share also fell substantially (from 10.0% to 7.6%), as did that of the European Union (from 39.6% to 36.5%). The world share of the OECD economies as a whole dropped over this period from 84.0% to 76.4%.
In Southeast Asia between 1998 and 2008, China featured among the top three countries for scientific co-authorship for Australia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore.
The production of private knowledge remains concentrated in North America, Asia and Europe; the rest of the world accounted for just 2% of all patents applications to the US, European and Japanese patent offices in 2006.
India has become the world’s leading exporter of information technology services. Most of the growing number of foreign R&D centres established on Indian soil focus on ICTs.
In 2001, Singapore overtook New Zealand, a country with a similar population of about 5 million, in terms of the number of scientific publications recorded in the Science Citation Index and has since consolidated its position.
Malaysia registered half as many patents as New Zealand with the United States Patents and Trademark Office in 2001 but had moved ahead of New Zealand by 2007.


India now ranks third worldwide after the USA and Japan in terms of the volume of pharmaceuticals produced, with a 10 % share of the world market.
Internet has become an important vector for the transmission of knowledge. The number of Internet users per 100 population rose from 38% to 63% in the developed world between 2002 and 2008 and from 5% to 17% in the developing world. In 2008, some of the highest connectivity rates were recorded in the Republic of Korea (81%), Germany and the United Kingdom (78%), Canada (76%), the USA (74%), France and Japan (71%)). The average for Latin America and the Caribbean was 28%, for Asia and the Arab States 16% and for sub-Saharan Africa 6%.

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